HTML page has non-empty title

  • Rule Type:atomic
  • Rule Id: 2779a5
  • Last modified: Aug 03, 2020
  • Accessibility Requirements Mapping:
    • 2.4.2 Page Titled (Level: A)
      • Learn More about 2.4.2 (Page Titled)
      • Required for conformance to WCAG 2.0 and above on level A and above.
      • Outcome mapping:
        • Any failed outcomes: success criterion is not satisfied.
        • All passed outcomes: success criterion needs further testing.
        • An inapplicable outcome: success criterion needs further testing.
    • G88: Providing descriptive titles for Web pages
    • H25: Providing a title using the title element
  • Input Aspects:

Description

This rule checks that a non-embedded HTML page has a non-empty title.

Applicability

The root element of the web page, if it is an html element.

Expectation 1

Each target element has at least one descendant that is a title element.

Expectation 2

For each target element, the first HTML title element that is a descendant of the document element has children that are text nodes that are not only whitespace.

Assumptions

This rule assumes that Success Criterion 2.4.2 Page Titled does not require that a document only has one title element, nor that it is a child of the head element of a document. While this is invalid in HTML, the HTML 5.2 specification describes what should happen in case of multiple titles, and titles outside the head element. Because of this, neither of these validation issues causes a conformance problem for WCAG. Regardless of whether this is required by 2.4.2 Page Titled, failing this rule means the success criterion is not satisfied.

Accessibility Support

There are no major accessibility support issues known for this rule.

Background

This rule is only applicable to non-embedded HTML pages. HTML pages embedded into other documents, such as through iframe or object elements are not applicable because they are not web pages according to the definition in WCAG.

Test Cases

Passed

Passed Example 1

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This page has a title element with content.

<html>
	<title>This page has a title</title>
</html>

Passed Example 2

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This page has a title element that serves as the title for the page and the iframe since it does not have its own.

<html>
	<title>This page gives a title to an iframe</title>
	<iframe src="/test-assets/sc2-4-2-title-page-without-title.html"></iframe>
</html>

Passed Example 3

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This page has two title elements with content.

<html>
	<head>
		<title>Title of the page.</title>
	</head>
	<body>
		<title>Title of the page.</title>
	</body>
</html>

Passed Example 4

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This page has one title element with content, which is within the body element.

<html>
	<body>
		<title>Title of the page.</title>
	</body>
</html>

Passed Example 5

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This page has two title elements and only the first has content.

<html>
	<head>
		<title>Title of the page.</title>
	</head>
	<body>
		<title></title>
	</body>
</html>

Failed

Failed Example 1

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This page does not have a title element.

<html>
	<h1>this page has no title</h1>
</html>

Failed Example 2

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This page has a title element that is empty.

<html>
	<title></title>
</html>

Failed Example 3

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This page does not have a title element. The title element in the content of the iframe does not function as the title for the entire page.

<html>
	<iframe src="/test-assets/sc2-4-2-title-page-with-title.html"></iframe>
</html>

Failed Example 4

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This page has two title elements and the first is empty.

<html>
	<head>
		<title></title>
	</head>
	<body>
		<title>Title of the page.</title>
	</body>
</html>

Failed Example 5

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This page has a title element that only contains a separator character.

<html>
	<title> </title>
</html>

Inapplicable

Inapplicable Example 1

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This title element is a child of an svg element.

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
  <title>This is an SVG</title>
</svg>

Glossary

Outcome

An outcome is a conclusion that comes from evaluating an ACT Rule on a test subject or one of its constituent test target. An outcome can be one of the three following types:

  • Inapplicable: No part of the test subject matches the applicability
  • Passed: A test target meets all expectations
  • Failed: A test target does not meet all expectations

Note: A rule has one passed or failed outcome for every test target. When there are no test targets the rule has one inapplicable outcome. This means that each test subject will have one or more outcomes.

Note: Implementations using the EARL10-Schema can express the outcome with the outcome property. In addition to passed, failed and inapplicable, EARL 1.0 also defined an incomplete outcome. While this cannot be the outcome of an ACT Rule when applied in its entirety, it often happens that rules are only partially evaluated. For example, when applicability was automated, but the expectations have to be evaluated manually. Such "interim" results can be expressed with the incomplete outcome.

Whitespace

Whitespace are characters that have the Unicode "White_Space" property in the Unicode properties list.

This includes:

  • all characters in the Unicode Separator categories, and
  • the following characters in the Other, Control category:

    • Character tabulation (U+0009)
    • Line Feed (LF) (U+000A)
    • Line Tabulation (U+000B)
    • Form Feed (FF) (U+000C)
    • Carriage Return (CR) (U+000D)
    • Next Line (NEL) (U+0085)

Useful Links


Implementations

This section is not part of the official rule. It is populated dynamically and not accounted for in the change history or the last modified date. This section will not be included in the rule when it is published on the W3C website.

ToolConsitencyCompleteReport
AlfaconsistentYesView Report
axe-coreconsistentYesView Report
RGAA 3.0consistentYesView Report
SortSiteconsistentYesView Report
QualWebconsistentNoView Report

Acknowledgments

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