video element visual-only content has accessible alternative


Description

This rule checks that video elements without audio have an alternative available.

Applicability

The rule applies to any non-streaming video element that is visible where the video does not contain audio.

Expectation

For each test target, the outcome of at least one of the following rules is passed:

Assumptions

  • A mechanism is available to start the video and the video element is not simply used to display the poster.
  • The language of each test target can be correctly determined (either programmatically or by analyzing the content), and sufficiently understood.

Accessibility Support

See Video Only Element Has Description Track: accessibility support.

Background

Test Cases

Passed

Passed Example 1

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a track element with descriptions. Thus, it passes rule Video Element Visual-Only Content Has Description Track.

<html lang="en">
	<video controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm" />
		<track kind="descriptions" src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/descriptions.vtt" />
	</video>
</html>

Passed Example 2

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a text transcript available on the same page. Thus, it passes rule Video Element Visual-Only Content Has Transcript.

<html lang="en">
<video controls>
  <source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4"></source>
  <source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm"></source>
</video>
<p>The above video shows a giant fat rabbit climbing out of a hole in the ground.
He stretches, yaws, and then starts walking.
Then he stops to scratch his bottom.</p>
</html>

Passed Example 3

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a separate audio track that describes the visual information. Thus, it passes rule Video Element Visual-Only Content Has Audio Track Alternative.

<html lang="en">
	<video controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm" />
	</video>

	<audio controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/audio-description.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
	</audio>
</html>

Passed Example 4

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, is a media alternative for the text in the page and labeled as such. Thus, it passes rule Video Element Visual-Only Content Is Media Alternative For Text.

<html lang="en">
	<p>
		Not being able to use your computer because your mouse doesn't work, is frustrating. Many people use only the
		keyboard to navigate websites. Either through preference or circumstance. This is solved by keyboard compatibility.
		Keyboard compatibility is described in WCAG. See the video below to watch the same information again in video form.
	</p>
	<video src="/test-assets/perspective-video/perspective-video-with-captions-silent.mp4" controls></video>
</html>

Failed

Failed Example 1

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a track element with incorrect descriptions.

<html lang="en">
	<video controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm" />
		<track kind="descriptions" src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/incorrect-descriptions.vtt" />
	</video>
</html>

Failed Example 2

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a transcript which does not convey the information included in the video-only content. The transcript is available through a link on the same page.

<html lang="en">
<video controls>
  <source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4"></source>
  <source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm"></source>
</video>
<a href="/test-assets/rabbit-video/incorrect-transcript.html">Transcript</a>
</html>

Failed Example 3

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, has a separate audio track that incorrectly describes the visual information.

<html lang="en">
	<video controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm" />
	</video>

	<audio controls>
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/incorrect-audio-description.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
	</audio>
</html>

Failed Example 4

Open in a new tab

This video element, which has no audio, is a media alternative for the text in the page but it is not labeled as such.

<html lang="en">
	<p>
		Not being able to use your computer because your mouse doesn't work, is frustrating. Many people use only the
		keyboard to navigate websites. Either through preference or circumstance. This is solved by keyboard compatibility.
		Keyboard compatibility is described in WCAG.
	</p>
	<video src="/test-assets/perspective-video/perspective-video-with-captions-silent.mp4" controls></video>
</html>

Inapplicable

Inapplicable Example 1

Open in a new tab

This video element has audio.

<html lang="en">
	<p>
		Not being able to use your computer because your mouse doesn't work, is frustrating. Many people use only the
		keyboard to navigate websites. Either through preference or circumstance. This is solved by keyboard compatibility.
		Keyboard compatibility is described in WCAG. See the video below to watch the same information again in video form.
	</p>
	<video src="/test-assets/perspective-video/perspective-video.mp4" controls></video>
</html>

Inapplicable Example 2

Open in a new tab

This video element is not visible.

<html lang="en">
	<video controls style="display: none;">
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
		<source src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/silent.webm" type="video/webm" />
		<track kind="descriptions" src="/test-assets/rabbit-video/descriptions.vtt" />
	</video>
</html>

Glossary

Outcome

An outcome is a conclusion that comes from evaluating an ACT Rule on a test subject or one of its constituent test target. An outcome can be one of the three following types:

  • Inapplicable: No part of the test subject matches the applicability
  • Passed: A test target meets all expectations
  • Failed: A test target does not meet all expectations

Note: A rule has one passed or failed outcome for every test target. When there are no test targets the rule has one inapplicable outcome. This means that each test subject will have one or more outcomes.

Note: Implementations using the EARL10-Schema can express the outcome with the outcome property. In addition to passed, failed and inapplicable, EARL 1.0 also defined an incomplete outcome. While this cannot be the outcome of an ACT Rule when applied in its entirety, it often happens that rules are only partially evaluated. For example, when applicability was automated, but the expectations have to be evaluated manually. Such "interim" results can be expressed with the incomplete outcome.

Visible

Content perceivable through sight.

Content is considered visible if making it fully transparent would result in a difference in the pixels rendered for any part of the document that is currently within the viewport or can be brought into the viewport via scrolling.

Content is defined in WCAG.

For more details, see examples of visible.


Useful Links


Implementations

This section is not part of the official rule. It is populated dynamically and not accounted for in the change history or the last modified date. This section will not be included in the rule when it is published on the W3C website.

ToolConsistencyCompleteReport
axe-corepartially-consistentYesView Report

Acknowledgments

Table of Contents